A system based on Degrees used in navigation of the globe. Latitude and longitude are a coordinate system used to locate points on the Earth’s surface.
Longitude lines are made by circles that intersect with both the North and the South Poles. Each longitude can be thought of as dividing the Earth in half. Longitudes are measured in half circles of 0° to 180° East and from 0° to 180° West from the Royal Greenwich Observatory in Greenwich, England. The Royal Greenwich Observatory was established in 1675 to advance the art of navigation.
Latitude is measured as a angle from the equator of the Earth (0°) to the North Pole (90° North) or to the South Pole (90° South). Think of the center of the Earth as the latitudes vertex and the plane made by the equator as the adjacent side or base of the angle. Latitude lines are made by circles that run parallel to the equator’s plane, and grow progressively smaller as they get closer to the poles.